Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The financial results of Kona Grill have been included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition on October 4, 2019.
The Company consolidates entities in which it has a controlling financial interest, the usual condition of which is ownership of a majority voting interest. The Company also considers for consolidation an entity in which it has certain interests, where the controlling financial interest may be achieved through arrangements that do not involve voting interests. Such an entity, known as a variable interest entity (“VIE”), is required to be consolidated by its primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is the entity that possesses the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact its economic performance and has the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that are significant to it.
The Company evaluates its equity method and cost method investments for impairment whenever an event or change in circumstances occurs that may have a significant adverse impact on the fair value of the investment. If a loss in value has occurred and is deemed to be other than temporary, an impairment loss is recorded. Several factors are reviewed to determine whether a loss has occurred that is other than temporary, including the absence of an ability to recover the carrying amount of the investment, the length and extent of the fair value decline, and the financial condition and future prospects of the investee. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recorded a non-cash write down of $2.7 million related to its cost method investments. Refer to Note 10 – Nonconsolidated Variable Interest Entities for additional information regarding the Company’s investments and related impairment.
Prior Period Reclassifications
Certain reclassifications of the 2018 financial statements amounts have been made to conform to the current year presentation. The Company has combined owned restaurant net revenues and owned food, beverage and other net revenues to be presented in total as owned restaurant net revenue. Additionally, the Company reclassified $1.8 million of owned food, beverage and other expenses to owned restaurant cost of sales and $6.1 million of owned food, beverage and other expenses to owned restaurant expenses on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. Certain reclassifications were also made to conform the prior period segment reporting to the current year segment presentation. Refer to Note 18 – Segment Reporting for additional information regarding the Company’s reportable operating segments.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions for the reporting period and as of the reporting date. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosure of contingencies. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
On October 4, 2019, the Company acquired substantially all the assets of Kona Grill, which was accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting prescribed by Accounting Standard Codification Topic 805, Business Combinations. Acquired assets and assumed liabilities were assigned fair values based on widely accepted valuation techniques, in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements. The process for estimating fair values in many cases requires the use of significant estimates, assumptions and judgments, including determining the timing and estimates of future cash flows and developing appropriate discount rates. Unanticipated events or circumstances may occur which could affect the accuracy of our fair value estimates, including assumptions regarding industry economic factors and business strategies. The Company expects to finalize the purchase price allocation as soon as practicable within the measurement period, but not later than one year following the acquisition date.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value represents the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Assets and liabilities are valued based upon observable and non-observable inputs. Valuations using Level 1 inputs are based on unadjusted quoted prices that are available in active markets for the identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date. Level 2 inputs utilize significant other observable inputs available at the measurement date, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, either directly or indirectly. Valuations using Level 3 inputs are based on significant unobservable inputs that cannot be corroborated by observable market data and reflect the use of significant management judgment. There were no significant transfers between levels during any period presented.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents are defined as cash on hand and highly liquid instruments with original maturities of three months or less when purchased. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents consist of cash in banks and at the restaurants as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.
The majority of the Company’s receivables arise primarily from credit cards, management agreements, trade customers and other reimbursable amounts due from hotel operators where the Company operates a food and beverage service. The Company determines an allowance for doubtful accounts by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade accounts receivable are past due, previous loss and payment history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company and the condition of the general economy and industry as a whole. The Company has not reserved any trade receivables as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Inventories, which consist of food, liquor and other beverages, are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined by the first in, first out method. Net realizable value is defined as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs to sell. The Company has not reserved any inventory as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Property and Equipment
Additions to property and equipment, including leasehold improvements, are recorded at cost. Costs incurred to repair and maintain the Company’s operations and equipment are expensed as incurred. Restaurant smallwares are capitalized during the initial year of operation of a particular restaurant. All restaurant supplies purchased subsequent to the first year are expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost of the assets and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any gain or loss on retirements is reflected in operating income in the year of disposition.
After the asset has been placed into service, depreciation is based on the estimated useful life of the asset using the straight-line method for financial statement purposes. Computers and equipment as well as furniture and fixtures are depreciated over their useful lives from three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the remaining term of the associated lease. Lease terms begin on the date the Company takes possession under the lease and include option periods where failure to exercise such options would result in an economic penalty.
Intangible assets consist of the “Kona Grill” trade name and is amortized using the straight-line method over its estimated useful life of 20 years. As of December 31, 2019, the gross carrying amount and accumulated amortization of the tradename intangible was $17.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively. Amortization expense was $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The Company’s estimated aggregate amortization expense for each of the five succeeding fiscal years is approximately $0.9 million annually.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying values of these assets may not be fully recoverable. The impairment evaluation is generally performed at the individual venue asset group level. Recoverability of restaurant assets is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an individual restaurant’s assets to the estimated identifiable undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by those restaurant assets. If the carrying amount of an individual restaurant’s assets exceeds its estimated, identifiable, undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset’s exceed its fair value. Fair value is determined by discounting a restaurant’s identifiable future cash flows.
For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company did not identify any event or changes in circumstances that indicated that the carrying values of its restaurant assets were impaired.
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs incurred in connection with the issuance of long-term debt are capitalized and amortized to interest expense based on the term of the related debt agreement using the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method. The Company has recorded debt issuance costs as an offset to long-term debt, net of current portion on the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company computes income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes, using the enacted statutory rate in effect for the year these differences are expected to be taxable or refunded. Deferred income tax expenses or credits are based on the changes in the asset or liability, respectively, from period to period. A deferred tax asset or liability is recognized whenever there are future tax effects from existing temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry-forwards. If the Company determines that a deferred tax asset or liability could be realized in a greater or lesser amount than recorded, the deferred tax asset or liability is adjusted and a corresponding adjustment is made to the provision for income taxes in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income in the period during which the determination is made.
The Company reduces its deferred tax assets by a valuation allowance if it determines that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of these tax assets will not be realized. In making this determination, the Company considers various qualitative and quantitative factors, such as:
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had a valuation allowance of approximately $10.8 million on its deferred tax assets, net. As of December 31, 2019, the Company determined to release approximately $10.3 million of its valuation allowance based on an assessment of the realizability of its deferred tax assets. This reversal resulted in a benefit for income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position when it determines that it is more-likely-than-not that the position would be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. If the Company derecognizes an uncertain tax position, the Company’s policy is to record any applicable interest and penalties within the (benefit) provision for income taxes in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income.
Revenue is derived from restaurant sales, management services and license related operations.
The Company recognizes restaurant revenues, net of discounts, when goods and services are provided. Sales tax amounts collected from customers that are remitted to governmental authorities are excluded from net revenue.
Management agreements typically call for a management fee based on a percentage of revenue, a monthly marketing fee based on a percentage of revenues and an incentive fee based on a managed venue’s net profits. Similarly, royalties from the licensee in license agreements are generally based on a percentage of the licensed restaurant’s revenue. These management, license and incentive fees are recognized as revenue in the period the restaurant’s sales occur.
The Company recognizes initial licensing fees and upfront fees related to management and license agreements on a straight-line basis over the term of the agreement as a component of management, license and incentive fee revenue on the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income.
The Company has a loyalty program to encourage customers to frequent Kona Grill restaurants. The loyalty rewards program awards a customer one point for every dollar spent. When a customer is part of the rewards program, the obligation to provide future discounts related to points earned is considered a separate performance obligation, to which a portion of the transaction price is allocated. The performance obligation related to loyalty points is deemed to have been satisfied, and the amount deferred in the balance sheet is recognized as revenue, when the points are converted to a reward and redeemed, or the likelihood of redemption is remote. A portion of the transaction price is allocated to loyalty points, if necessary, on a pro-rata basis, based on the stand-alone selling price, as determined by menu pricing and loyalty points terms. As of December 31, 2019, the deferred revenue allocated to loyalty points that have not been redeemed is less than $0.1 million, which is recorded as a component of accrued expenses in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The Company expects the loyalty points to be redeemed and recognized over a one-year period.
Proceeds from the sale of gift cards are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized as revenue when redeemed by the holder. There are no expiration dates on the Company’s gift cards and the Company does not charge any service fees that would result in a decrease to a customer’s available balance.
Although the Company will continue to honor all gift cards presented for payment, it may determine the likelihood of redemption to be remote for certain gift cards due to, among other things, long periods of inactivity. In these circumstances, to the extent the Company determines there is no requirement for remitting balances to government agencies under unclaimed property laws, outstanding gift card balances may then be recognized as breakage in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income as a component of owned restaurant net revenue.
For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company recognized $0.2 million and $0.2 million, respectively, in revenue from gift card breakage.
Pre-opening costs for Company owned restaurants are expensed as incurred prior to a restaurant opening for business. Pre-opening costs for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $0.6 million and $1.4 million, respectively.
The Company expenses the cost of advertising and promotions as incurred. Advertising expense amounted to $3.1 million and $2.2 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Contracts are evaluated to determine whether they contain a lease at inception. If it is determined that the contract contains an operating lease, a right-of-use asset and operating lease liability are recorded on the consolidated balance sheets. A right-of-use asset represents the Company’s right to use the underlying asset and the lease liability represents the Company’s contractually obligated payments. Both the right-of-use asset and the lease liability are recognized as of the commencement date of the lease and are based upon the present value of lease payments due over the course of the lease. The right-of-use asset is reduced by any lease incentives received and is adjusted for any prepayments.
The Company monitors for triggering events or conditions that require a reassessment of its leases. When the reassessment requires a re-measurement of the operating lease liability, a corresponding adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset. Additionally, the Company assesses its right-of-use assets for impairment in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification Topic 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment.
For leases that do not have a rate implicit in the lease, the Company’s incremental borrowing rate at the date of commencement is used. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate is the rate of interest that it would have to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term and amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment.
The Company has made an accounting policy election not to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for leases with a lease term of 12 months or less, including renewal options that are reasonably certain to be exercised, that also do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that is reasonably certain of exercise. Instead, lease payments for these leases are recognized as lease cost on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, the Company has elected not to separate the accounting for lease components and non-lease components, for all leased assets. Given the importance of each of its restaurant locations to its operations, the Company historically concluded that it was reasonably assured of exercising two renewal periods included in its leases as failure to exercise such options would result in an economic penalty.
The Company maintains an equity incentive compensation plan under which it may grant options, warrants, restricted stock or other stock-based awards to directors, officers, key employees and other key individuals performing services to the Company. Restricted stock and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) are valued using the closing stock price on the date of grant. The fair value of an option award or warrant is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires estimates of the expected term of the option, the risk-free interest rate, future volatility and dividend yield. The Company’s assumptions are as follows:
Under the plan, vesting of awards can either be based on the passage of time or on the achievement of performance goals. For awards that vest on the passage of time, compensation cost is recognized over the vesting period. For performance-based awards, the Company recognizes compensation costs over the requisite service period when conditions for achievement become probable. The Company estimates forfeitures at the time of grant and revises those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ or are expected to differ. These estimates, which are currently at 10%, are based on historical forfeiture behavior exhibited by employees of the Company.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period and income available to common stockholders. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period plus the dilutive effect of all potential shares of common stock including common stock issuable pursuant to stock options, warrants, and RSUs. As a result, the sum of per share amount may not equal the total. Refer to Note 15 for the calculations of basic and diluted earnings per share.
In the fourth quarter of 2019, in conjunction with the Kona Grill acquisition, the Company implemented certain organizational changes, including the reorganization of our internal reporting structure to better facilitate our strategy for growth, operational efficiency and management accountability. As a result of these organizational changes, the Company has identified the following four reportable operating segments: STK, Kona Grill, ONE Hospitality and Corporate. Refer to Note 18 for additional details and certain financial information regarding the Company’s operating segments relating to the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Prior year amounts have been revised to conform to the current year segment presentation.
Foreign Currency Translation
Assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated into U.S. dollars at the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at average monthly exchange rates. Gains or losses resulting from the translation of foreign subsidiaries represent other comprehensive income (loss) and are accumulated as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Currency translation gains or (losses) are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss within stockholders’ equity and amounted to approximately $(0.3) million and $(0.8) million during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Comprehensive income consists of two components: net income and other comprehensive income (loss). The Company’s other comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments. All of the Company’s foreign currency translation adjustments relate to wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standard Updated (“ASU”) No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes,” (“ASU 2019-12”) which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Accounting Standard Codification Topic 740, Income Taxes, and it clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. ASU 2019-12 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company is evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2019-12 on its financial statements but does not expect the adoption of ASU 2019-12 to be material.
In July 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019‑07, “Codification Updates to SEC Sections – Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Final Rule Releases No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, and Nos. 33-10231 and 33-10442, Investment Company Reporting Modernization and Miscellaneous Updates (SEC Update)” (“ASU 2019‑07”). ASU 2019‑07 updates the accounting standards codification to reflect the amendments of various SEC disclosure requirements that the agency determined were redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded and aligns the guidance with the requirements of certain SEC final rules. ASU 2019‑07 is effective immediately. The adoption of ASU 2019-07 did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019‑01, “Leases (Topic 842): Codification Improvements” (“ASU 2019‑01”). ASU 2019‑01 provided clarification related to adopting Accounting Standard Codification Topic 842, Leases (“ASC Topic 842”). ASU 2019‑01 addresses fair value determinations of underlying assets by lessors, cash flow statement presentation for financing leases, and transition disclosures. The Company adopted ASC Topic 842 as of January 1, 2019 and considered the clarification guidance in ASU 2019‑01 as part of its adoption. Refer to Note 14 for additional details regarding the adoption of ASC Topic 842.
In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018‑17, “Consolidation (Topic 810): Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities” (“ASU 2018‑17”). ASU 2018‑17 states that indirect interests held through related parties in common control arrangements should be considered on a proportional basis to determine whether fees paid to decision makers and service providers are variable interests. This is consistent with how indirect interests held through related parties under common control are considered for determining whether a reporting entity must consolidate a variable interest entity. ASU 2018‑17 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. Entities are required to adopt the new guidance retrospectively with a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings at the beginning of the earliest period presented. The Company is evaluating the effects of this pronouncement on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018‑13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework – Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement” (“ASU 2018‑13”). ASU 2018‑13 eliminates, modifies and adds disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The amendments in ASU 2018‑13 are effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the effects of ASU 2018‑13 on its consolidated financial statements but does not expect the adoption of ASU 2018‑13 to be material.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018‑15, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other – Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350‑40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract” (“ASU 2018‑15”). ASU 2018‑15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in cloud computing arrangements with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. ASU 2018‑15 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. Entities can choose to adopt the new guidance prospectively or retrospectively. The Company is evaluating the effects of this pronouncement on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef